Political life in Brazil has not always been under the shadow of the military. The generation of politicians pertaining to the period of Independence, still under the impact of the Napoleonic Wars and somewhat suspicious of the authoritarian tendencies of the first emperor, did not provide for the creation of a powerful army while building national institutions. The situation began to change during the Paraguayan War and the crisis of the monarchical regime, culminating in the military coup d’Etat that brought about the Republic in 1889. It followed more than a century in which military intervention was either a possibility or a reality in political life. The end of the military dictatorship (1964-85), followed by the enactment of the Constitution of 1988, seemed to have brought this plight to an end. However, since the impeachment crisis of 2016, and especially after the election of a right-wing extremist as president in 2018, the country seems again under the threat of the upending of politics by the military. Is this threat real? Are the institutions of Brazilian democracy likely to prevail under this challenge?